Porous ceramic membranes are available in three main configurations: flat, tubular and multi-channel, of which flat membranes are mainly used in small-scale industrial production and laboratory research. Tubular membranes are combined to form a form similar to a tube heat exchanger, which increases the membrane loading and product size, but have been phased out of industrial applications due to their strength. Ceramic membranes for large-scale applications usually have a multi-channel configuration, i.e. multiple channels in a circular cross-section, typically with 7, 19, 37 etc. The main preparation techniques for inorganic ceramic membranes are: carrier and microfiltration membranes by solid particle sintering, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration membranes by sol-gel method, glass membranes by fractional phase method, microporous or dense membranes by specialised techniques (e.g. chemical vapour deposition, electroless plating, etc.), etc. The basic theory involves the materials disciplines of colloid and surface chemistry, materials chemistry, solid state ionics, materials processing, etc.
Porous ceramic membranes are widely used in the food, biological, chemical, energy and environmental protection fields due to their excellent resistance to high temperatures, solvents, acids and bases and their high mechanical strength and easy regeneration.
In August 2004, the ceramic membrane filtration system developed by Beijing Mason Technology Co., Ltd. and Shandong Lu Anti-Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. for the separation and purification of a certain antibiotic was successful, which not only optimised the production process of this antibiotic, but also increased the yield of the antibiotic by 15%. For the separation and purification of antibiotics, the fermentation broth must be filtered and the filtered liquid must be exchanged for resin. Many antibiotic manufacturers use vacuum drum filters for the separation and purification of aminoglycoside antibiotic fermentation broth, a process that requires the fermentation broth to be acidified to a certain pH, then pre-filtered with a vacuum drum filter with a filter aid layer, and then re-filtered with a plate and frame and resin exchange. This process is not only cumbersome, but also has a low yield of active ingredients, with a yield loss of 30% in the filtration and resin exchange process alone. In contrast, the ceramic membrane filtration system developed jointly by Mysonp and Lupin can increase the yield loss of the active ingredient by nearly 5% in the filtration process and by more than 10% in the resin exchange process.
In the field of food packaging, it is clear ceramic coated films with high functionality and good environmental suitability that are attracting attention. Although these films are expensive and their physical properties need to be further improved, it is expected that in the near future they will occupy an important position in food packaging materials. The processing of ceramic films is similar to the usual metal plating method and is essentially carried out according to known processing methods. The coated ceramic film consists of PET (12μm) ceramic (SiOx). Silicon oxide can be divided into four groups, namely SiO, Si₃O₄, Si₂O₃ and SiO₂. However, in nature they are usually found in the form of SiO₂ and therefore vary considerably depending on the plating genus conditions. The main requirements for such films are good transparency, excellent barrier properties, excellent resistance to cooking, good microwave permeability and good environmental protection as well as good mechanical properties. Ceramic coated films can be produced under essentially the same conditions as aluminised films, and it is extremely important that the surface layer is carefully treated during the production process so that the coating is not damaged. As this film is treated with silicon oxide, the surface has excellent wettability and it is therefore relatively wide in its choice of inks or adhesives and will affinity with almost any ink or adhesive. Polyurethane-based adhesives are the most desirable adhesives, while inks can be chosen at will according to their use, without surface treatment.
The "863" Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) project, after a long-term development of a new medium-temperature solid oxide ceramic membrane fuel cell, has pioneered the application of ceramic membrane preparation technology to the production of SOFC, extending the usual SOFC high temperature (1000~900℃) to the medium temperature stage (700~500 ℃). The new medium-temperature ceramic membrane fuel cell, which has been successfully developed by the Institute of Inorganic Membranes at the University of Science and Technology of China, is a fuel cell with a ceramic membrane as the electrolyte. After the thin film of the cell components, the internal resistance of the cell is reduced, the output of useful power is increased, the medium temperature is achieved without the need for high temperature, and the operating temperature is reduced to 700~500 ℃. This new fuel cell inherits the advantages of high temperature SOFC while reducing costs. This type of ceramic membrane fuel cell has broad application prospects.
In August 2004, based on the shortcomings of metal film such as interference with radio signals and easy oxidation, Shaohua Technology Company in China, together with a famous industrial research institute in Germany, developed and incorporated nano honeycomb ceramic technology and used Shaohua Technology's unique vacuum sputtering technology for the production of ceramic heat insulation film, creating a unique amber ceramic heat insulation film, solving the technical problems that metal film could not surmount.