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How Are Energy Storage Batteries Classified?

Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2022-06-14      Origin: Site


As we all know, energy storage can be divided into mechanical energy storage and chemical energy storage. Mechanical energy storage can be divided into pumped storage, compressed air storage, flywheel energy storage; chemical energy storage (also known as batteries) can be divided into lead-acid batteries, nickel batteries, lithium batteries, liquid flow batteries, sodium-sulphur batteries.

  • Lead-acid battery: a battery whose electrodes are mainly made of lead and its oxides and whose electrolyte is a sulphuric acid solution. In the discharged state, the main component of the positive electrode is lead dioxide and the negative electrode is lead; in the charged state, the main component of both the positive and negative electrodes is lead sulphate.

The advantages and disadvantages of lead-acid batteries are mainly: safety sealing, gas discharge system, simple maintenance, long service life, stable quality and high reliability; the disadvantage is that the pollution of lead is large and the energy density is low.

  • Nickel-based batteries: Nickel-metal hydride batteries are a type of battery with good performance. The positive active material of NiMH battery is Ni(OH)2 (called NiO electrode), the negative active material is metal hydride, also called hydrogen storage alloy (electrode called hydrogen storage electrode), and the electrolyte is 6 mol/L potassium hydroxide solution.

The advantages of nickel-based batteries are: high energy density, fast charging and discharging, light weight, long life, no environmental pollution; the disadvantages are a slight memory effect, more management problems, easy to form a single battery compartment melting.

  • Lithium-based batteries: Lithium-ion batteries, a class of batteries with lithium metal or lithium alloy as the negative electrode material and using a non-aqueous electrolyte solution, have very high environmental requirements due to the very active chemical properties of lithium metal, which makes the processing, preservation and use of lithium metal, very demanding. With the development of science and technology, lithium-ion batteries have now become mainstream.

Its important advantages are: long service life, high storage energy density, light weight and adaptability; the disadvantages are poor safety, easy to explode, high cost and restricted conditions of use.

  • Liquid flow battery: Liquid flow energy storage battery is a class of devices suitable for fixed large-scale energy storage (electricity storage), compared with the current commonly used lead-acid batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries and other secondary batteries, with power and storage capacity can be independently designed (energy storage medium stored outside the battery), high efficiency, long life, can be deep discharge, environmentally friendly and other advantages, is one of the preferred technologies.

The advantages of liquid flow batteries are: flexible layout, long cycle life, fast response and no harmful emissions; the disadvantage is that the energy density varies greatly.

  • Sodium-sulphur battery: Sodium-sulphur battery, a secondary battery with sodium metal as the negative electrode, sulphur as the positive electrode and a ceramic tube as the electrolyte diaphragm. At a certain operating degree, the sodium ions pass through the electrolyte diaphragm and the reversible reaction between the sulphur, resulting in the release and storage of energy.

Advantages and disadvantages of sodium ion batteries: specific energy up to 760Wh/kg, no self-discharge phenomenon, discharge efficiency up to almost 100%, life can reach 10-15 years; disadvantage is high temperature 350ºC melting sulphur and sodium.

  • Ternary lithium-ion battery: Ternary polymer lithium-ion battery refers to the positive electrode material using lithium nickel cobalt manganate (Li (NiCoMn) O2) ternary positive electrode material lithium-ion battery, ternary composite positive electrode material is based on nickel salt, cobalt salt, manganese salt as raw materials, the ratio of nickel cobalt manganese inside can be adjusted according to the actual want, ternary material to do the positive electrode of the battery related to lithium cobalt-ion The safety of the battery is high, but the voltage is too low, and when used in mobile phones (the cut-off voltage of mobile phones is generally around 3.0V), there will be an obvious feeling of insufficient capacity.

The advantages of ternary lithium-ion batteries are: good cycle performance; the disadvantage is that the use of some restrictions

  • Lithium iron phosphate: lithium iron phosphate lithium ion battery, refers to the lithium ion battery with lithium iron phosphate as the cathode material. Lithium-ion battery cathode materials are important lithium cobaltate, lithium manganate, lithium nickelate, ternary materials, lithium iron phosphate, etc.. Among them, lithium cobaltate is currently the majority of lithium-ion battery cathode materials used.

The advantages of lithium iron phosphate are: improved safety performance, improved life, good high temperature performance, high capacity, no memory effect, light weight, environmental protection; the disadvantage is that it can cause micro-short circuit, lower energy density, higher manufacturing costs, poor product consistency, intellectual property issues.

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